Pre-Bar Quizzer in Political Law – Part I: Constitution of Government 11-20

11. What are the elements of “state”?

As held in COLLECTOR VS. CAMPOS RUEDA, 42 SCRA 23, the elements of a state are.

1. people

2. territory

3. sovereignty

4. government


12. Are the two-fold function of government as enumerated by the Supreme Court in BACANI VS. NACOCO, 100 Phil. 468 (Ministrant [merely directory] and Constituent [Mandatory] Functions) still applicable today?

          No more as held in    ACCFA VS. CUGCO, 30 SCRA 649. This is due to complexities of the changing society, the two-fold function of the government as classified by President Wilson is no longer relevant as a result of the changing society wherein what are considered merely ministrant functions of the State before are now considered constituent , or vice versa.

13. What kind of government was the “Aquino Government” after former President Marcos left Malaqcanang for Hawaii  due to the EDSA Revolution in February 1986.

          As held in  In Re: SATURNINO BERMUDEZ, 145 SCRA 160, the same is de jure. A government formed as a result of a people’s revolution, is considered de jure if it is already accepted by the family of nations or other countries like the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, and others.


14. What are the  three (3) kinds of de facto government?

As held in CO KIM CHAM VS. VALDEZ TAN KEH, 75 Phil. 113, the three (3) kinds of de facto governments are:

a.     The first, or government de facto in a proper legal sense, is that government that gets possession and control of, or usurps, by force or by the voice of the majority, the rightful legal governments and maintains itself against the will of the latter, such as the government of England under the Commonwealth, first by Parliament and later by Cromwell as Protector.

b.     The second is that which is established and maintained by military forces who invade and occupy a territory of the enemy in the course of war, and which is denominated a government of paramount force, as the cases of Castine, in Maine, which was reduced to British possession in the war of 1812, and Tampico, Mexico, occupied during the war with Mexico, by the troops of the United States.

c.      And the third is that established as an independent government by the inhabitants of a country who rise in insurrection against the parent state of such as the government of the Southern Confederacy in revolt not concerned in the present case with the first kind, but only with the second and third kinds of de facto governments.

“But there is another description of government, called also by publicists a government de facto, but which might, perhaps, be more aptly denominated a government of paramount force. Its distinguishing characteristics are

(1), that its existence is maintained by active military power with the territories, and against the rightful authority of an established and lawful government; and

(2), that while it exists it necessarily be obeyed in civil matters by private citizens who, by acts of obedience rendered in submission to such force, do not become responsible, or wrongdoers, for those acts, though not warranted by the laws of the rightful government.


15. What is the postliminy theory or jus postliminium?

When a foreign power occupies a state and exercises the powers of government, the political laws of the said state are deemed automatically suspended but the former government automatically comes to life and will be in force and in effect again upon the re-establishment of the former government. (Taylor, International Law, p. 615.)


16. What is the doctrine of sovereignty as “auto limitation”?

In the succinct language of Jellinek, it  “is the property of a state-force due to which it has the exclusive capacity of legal self-determination and self-restriction.” A state then, if it chooses to, may refrain from the exercise of what otherwise is illimitable competence.”  The opinion was at pains to point out though that even then, there is at the most diminution of jurisdictional rights, not its disappearance. (Cited in Reagan vs. Commissioner,  PEOPLE VS. GOZO, 53 SCRA 476 and COMMISSIONER VS. ROBERTSON, 143 SCRA 397)


17. What is the “incorporation theory” or the “Incorporation Clause” of the Constitution?

It is the principle embodied in Section 2, Article II of the Constitution which states that “The Philippines   adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land”.  (MEJOFF VS. DIRECTOR OF PRISONS, 90 Phil. 70, KURODA VS. JALANDONI, 83 Phil 171, and AGUSTIN VS. EDU,  88 SCRA 195).


18. In case of conflict between a constitutional right of a citizen and a generally accepted principle of international law, which shall prevail?

In the case of      4)   AGUSTIN VS. EDU, 88 SCRA 195

REYES VS. BAGATSING,125 SCRA 553, the Supreme Court held that the constitutional right shall prevail. Though Article 22 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations prohibits rallies within 500 feet of any foreign embassy, the same shall give way to the constitutional right of the citizens to “peaceably assemble and to petition the government for redress of their grievances”.


19. May a citizen refuse to render personal military service/training because he does not have military inclination or he does not want to kill or be killed?

No as held in PEOPLE VS. LAGMAN, 66 Phil. 13. “The appellant’s argument that he does not want to join the armed forces because “he does not want to kill or be killed” and that “he has no military inclination” is not acceptable because it is his obligation to join the armed forces in connection with the “defense of the State” provision of the Constitution.


20. Is the “separation of church and state” a myth or a reality?

It is a reality as shown by the following provisions of the Constitution.

1.     ART. III, Sec. 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. NO RELIGIOUS TEST SHALL BE REQUIRED FOR THE EXERCISE OF CIVIL OR POLITICAL RIGHTS.

2.     ART. VI, Sec. 28 (3). Charitable institutions, churches, mosques, non-profit cemeteries…actually, directly and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation.

3.     ART. VI, Sec. 29 .(2). No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, for the benefit, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination or religion, except when such priest, minister.. is assigned to the armed forces, or to any penal institution, or government orphanage or leprosarium.

4.     ART. IX, C, 2(5). Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered…as political parties. (NOTE: Religious organizations are also prohibited ion connection with sectoral representatives under Art. VI)

5.      ART. XIV, Sec. 3(3). At the option in writing by parents, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children in elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by religious authorities to which said children belong, without additional cost to the government.



Pre-Bar Quizzer in Political Law (Doctrinal Rulings, Requisites and Definitions) July, 2008 by Atty. Larry D. Gacayan

College of Law, University of the Cordilleras

Baguio City


About Magz

First of all, I am not a lawyer. I'm a graduate of AB Political Science and went to the College of Law but stopped going to law school for some reasons. I'm a passionate teacher who has been teaching English to speakers of other languages and a person who likes writing and blogging. I lost some important files and software when my computer broke down so the reason I created this website is to preserve the notes, reviewers and digests I collected when I was at the law school and at the same time, I want to help out law students who do not have enough time to go and read books in the library.

Posted on June 22, 2011, in Political Law and tagged . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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