Political Law (Constitutional Law) – Article XVI



Sections 1-2. Symbols of Nationality

1) Flag

  • Red, white, and blue.
  • With a sun and 3 stars
  • The design may be changed by constitutional amendment.

2) Congress may, by law, adopt a new:

(a) Name for the country,

(b) National anthem, or

(c) National seal.

Note: Law will take effect upon ratification by the people in a NATIONAL REFERENDUM.

Section 3.  State Immunity

Suability of State

1) The State cannot be sued without its consent.

2) When considered a suit against the State

a).  The Republic is sued by name;

b).  Suits against an un-incorporated government agency;

c).  Suit is against a government official, but is such that ultimate liability shall devolve on the government

i.  When a public officer acts in bad faith, or beyond the scope of his authority, he can be held personally liable for damages.

ii.  BUT:  If he acted pursuant to his official duties, without malice, negligence, or bad faith, they are not personally liable, and the suit is really one against the State.

3) This rule applies not only in favor of the Philippines but also in favor of foreign states.

4) The rule likewise prohibits a person from filing for interpleader, with the State as one of the defendants being compelled to interplead.

Consent to be sued

A. Express consent:

1). The law expressly grants the authority to sue the State or any of its agencies.

2). Examples:

a). A law creating a government body expressly providing that such body “may sue or be sued.”

b). Art. 2180 of the Civil Code, which creates liability against the State when it acts through a special agent.

B. Implied consent:

1). The State enters into a private contract.

a). The contract must be entered into by the proper officer and within the scope of his authority.

b). UNLESS:  The contract is merely incidental to the performance of a governmental function.

2). The State enters into an operation that is essentially a business operation.

a). UNLESS:  The operation is incidental to the performance of a governmental        function (e.g. arrastre services)

b). Thus, when the State conducts business operations through a GOCC, the latter can generally be sued, even if its charter contains no express “sue or be sued” clause.

3). Suit against an incorporated government agency.

a) This is because they generally conduct propriety business operations and have charters which grant them a separate juridical personality.

4). The State files suit against a private party.

UNLESS:  The suit is entered into only to resist a claim.

Garnishment of government funds:

1) GENERAL RULE:  NO.  Whether the money is deposited by way of general or special deposit, they remain government funds and are not subject to garnishment.

2) EXCEPTION:  A law or ordinance has been enacted appropriating a specific amount to pay a valid government obligation, then the money can be garnished.

Consent to be sued is not equivalent to consent to liability:

1) The Fact that the State consented to being sued does not mean that the State will ultimately be held liable.

2) Even if the case is decided against the State, an award cannot be satisfied by writs of execution or garnishment against public funds.  Reason:  No money shall be paid out of the public treasury unless pursuant to an appropriation made by law.



A citizen armed force

Prohibitions and disqualifications:

1) Military men cannot engage, directly or indirectly, in any partisan political activity, except to vote.

2) Members of the AFP in active service cannot be appointed to a civilian position in the government, including GOCCs or their subsidiaries.

The Chief of Staff:

1) Tour of duty: Not exceed to three years

2) EXCEPTION:  In times of war or other national emergency as declared by Congress, the President may extend such tour of duty.



Political Law (Constitutional Law) Reviewer & Memory Aid

Ateneo Central Bar Operations 2001

Louie, Carrie, Evelyn, Thel, Gem, Ronald



About Magz

First of all, I am not a lawyer. I'm a graduate of AB Political Science and went to the College of Law but stopped going to law school for some reasons. I'm a passionate teacher who has been teaching English to speakers of other languages and a person who likes writing and blogging. I lost some important files and software when my computer broke down so the reason I created this website is to preserve the notes, reviewers and digests I collected when I was at the law school and at the same time, I want to help out law students who do not have enough time to go and read books in the library.

Posted on December 20, 2011, in Constitutional Law and tagged . Bookmark the permalink. 1 Comment.

  1. Hello Magz,

    I have read part of your blog. It is very helpful.

    Thank you and best regards,

    Ronald Jay

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