Criminal Law Book 1 Articles 100 – 113

Art. 101.               Rules regarding civil liability in certain cases. — The exemption from criminal liability established in subdivisions 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of article 12 and in subdivision 4 of article 11 of this Code does not include exemption from civil liability, which shall be enforced subject to the following rules:

First.  In cases of subdivisions 1, 2, and 3 of Article 12, the civil liability for acts committed by an imbecile or insane person, and by a person under nine years of age, or by one over nine but under fifteen years of age, who has acted without discernment, shall devolve upon those having such person under their legal authority or control, unless it appears that there was no fault or negligence on their part.

Should there be no person having such insane, imbecile or minor under his authority, legal guardianship or control, or if such person be insolvent, said insane, imbecile, or minor shall respond with their own property, excepting property exempt from execution, in accordance with the civil law.

Second.  In cases falling within subdivision 4 of Article 11, the persons for whose benefit the harm has been prevented shall be civilly liable in proportion to the benefit which they may have received.

The courts shall determine, in sound discretion, the proportionate amount for which each one shall be liable.

When the respective shares cannot be equitably determined, even approximately, or when the liability also attaches to the Government, or to the majority of the inhabitants of the town, and, in all events, whenever the damages have been caused with the consent of the authorities or their agents, indemnification shall be made in the manner prescribed by special laws or regulations.

Third.  In cases falling within subdivisions 5 and 6 of Article 12, the persons using violence or causing the fears shall be primarily liable and secondarily, or, if there be no such persons, those doing the act shall be liable, saving always to the latter that part of their property exempt from execution.

General Rule: exemption from criminal liability does not include exemption from civil liability

Exception: no civil liability in par 4 and 7of art 12. Par 1,2,3,5 and 6 are NOT exempt from civil liability although exempt from criminal liability

Who are civilly liable for:

a. acts of insane or minor exempt from criminal liability

  1. primarily devolve upon perosns having legal authority or control over him, if at fault or negligent (except if proven that they acted w/o fault or w/ due diligence)
  2. if no fault or negligence, or even w/ fault but is insolvent and there are no persons having legal authority over them, the property of the insane, minor or imbecile not exempt from execution shall be held liable.
  3. over 15 but under 18 w. discernment

1. civil code says parent (dad then mom)_

2. guardians

3. minors own property where a guardian ad litem shall be appointed

*final release of a child based on good conduct does not remove his civil liability for damages.

  1. persons acting under an irresistible force or uncontrollable fear
    1. persons using violence or causing the fear are primarily liable
    2. if there are none, those doing the act
  1. no civil liability in justifying circumstances EXCEPT: par 4 of Art 11, the one benefited by the act is civilly liable.
  1. civil liability in case of state of necessity

Those who benefited by the act and court shall determine the proportionate amount for which each shall be liable. If the government or majority of the inhabitants are liable, such will be determined by special laws or regulations.


Art. 102.               Subsidiary civil liability of innkeepers, tavernkeepers and proprietors of establishments. — In default of the persons criminally liable, innkeepers, tavernkeepers, and any other persons or corporations shall be civilly liable for crimes committed in their establishments, in all cases where a violation of municipal ordinances or some general or special police regulation shall have been committed by them or their employees.

Innkeepers are also subsidiarily liable for the restitution of goods taken by robbery or theft within their houses from guests lodging therein, or for the payment of the value thereof, provided that such guests shall have notified in advance the innkeeper himself, or the person representing him, of the deposit of such goods within the inn; and shall furthermore have followed the directions which such innkeeper or his representative may have given them with respect to the care and vigilance over such goods. No liability shall attach in case of robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons unless committed by the innkeeper’s employees.

Elements of Par 1:

  1. That the innkeeper of the establishment or his employee committed a violation of municipal ordinance or some general or special police regulation
  2. A crime is committed in such establishment
  3. Person criminally liable is insolvent
  • when all these are present, the innkeeper and the like are subsidiarily liable

Elements of Par 2:

  1. guests notified in advance the innkeeper of the deposit of such goods w/in the inn
  2. guests followed the directions of the innkeeper w/ respect to the care and vigilance over the such goods

3.  such goods of the guest lodging therein were taken by robbery w/ force upon things or theft

  • When all these are present, the innkeeper is subsidiarily liable
  • No civil liability in case of robbery w/ violence against or intimidation of person, unless committed by the innkeeper’s employees
  • Actual deposit of the things of the guest to the innkeeper is not necessary, it is enough that they were within the inn.

Art. 103.               Subsidiary civil liability of other persons. — The subsidiary liability established in the next

preceding article shall also apply to employers, teachers, persons, and corporations engaged in any kind of industry for felonies committed by their servants, pupils, workmen, apprentices, or employees in the discharge of their duties.


  1. employer, teacher, person or corporation is engaged in any kind of industry

Industry – any department or branch of art, occupation or business; especially one w/c employs so much labor and capital is a distinct branch of trade

  1. any of their servants, pupils, workmen, apprentices of employees commits a felony while in the discharge of his duties
  2. the said employee is insolvent and has not satisfied his civil liability
  • Hospitals are not engaged in industry; hence nit subsidiarily liable for acts of nurses
  • Private persons w/o business or industry, not subsidiarilly liable


Art. 104.               What is included in civil liability. — The civil liability established in Articles 100, 101, 102, and 103 of this Code includes:

1.            Restitution;

2.            Reparation of the damage caused;

3.            Indemnification for consequential damages.

  • First remedy granted by law is no. 1, in case this is not possible no. 2.
  • In either case, no. 3 may be required
  • Restitution – in theft, the culprit is duty bound to return the property stolen
  • Reparation – in case of inability to return the property stolen, the culprit must pay the value of the property stolen.
  • In case of physical injuries, the reparation of the damage cause would consist in the payment of hospital bills and doctor’s fees to the offended party
  • Indemnification – the lost of salary or earnings



Includes reparation and indemnification Same
Includes restitution (return property taken), nothing to pay in terms of money No restitution as the liabilities are to paid out of the property of the offender
No fines and costs of proceedings Includes fines and costs of proceedings


Art. 105.               Restitution. — How made. — The restitution of the thing itself must be made whenever possible, with allowance for any deterioration, or diminution of value as determined by the court.

The thing itself shall be restored, even though it be found in the possession of a third person who has acquired it by lawful means, saving to the latter his action against the proper person, who may be liable to him.

This provision is not applicable in cases in which the thing has been acquired by the third person in the manner and under the requirements which, by law, bar an action for its recovery.

  • The convict cannot by way of restitution, give to the offended party a similar thing of the same amount, kind or species and quality. The very thing should be returned.
  • If the property stolen while in the possession of the third party suffers deterioration due to his fault, the court will assess the amount of the deterioration and, in addition to the return of the property, the culprit will be ordered to pay such amount
  • General Rule: the owner of the property illegally taken by the offender can recover it from whomsoever is in possession thereof. Thus, even if the property stolen was acquired by a 3rd person by purchase w/o knowing that it has been stolen, such property will be returned to the owner.
  • If the thing is acquired by a person knowing that it was stolen, then he is an accessory and therefore criminally liable
  • The third party who acquired the stolen property may be reimbursed w/ the price paid therefor if it be acquired at (a) a public sale and (b) in good faith
  • Circumstances which bar an action for recovery:
  1. Torrens title
  2. When sale is authorized
  • When the liability to return a thing arises from a contract, not from a criminal act, the court cannot order its return in the criminal case.
  • Restitution may be ordered, even if accused is acquitted, provided the offense is proved and it is shown that the thing belongs to someone else
  • When crime is not against property, no restitution or reparation of the thing can be done
  • Payment of salary of an employee during the period of suspension cannot, as a general rule, be properly decreed by the court in a judgement of acquittal. It devolves upon the head of the department concerned
  • The court has authority to order the reinstatement of the accused acquitted of a crime punishable by the penalty of perpetual or temporary disqualification


Art. 106.               Reparation. — How made. — The court shall determine the amount of damage, taking into consideration the price of the thing, whenever possible, and its special sentimental value to the injured party, and reparation shall be made accordingly.


  • Reparation will be ordered by the court if restitution is not possible
  • Reparation shall be

a)    the price of the thing

b)    its sentimental value

  • If there is no evidence as to the value of the thing unrecovered, reparation cannot be made
  • Payment by the insurance company does not relive the offender of his obligation to repair the damage caused
  • The damages shall be limited to those caused by the crime
  • Accused is liable for the damages caused as a result of the destruction of the property after the crime was committed either because it was lost or destroyed by the accused himself or that of any other person or as a result of any other cause or causes


Art. 107.               Indemnification — What is included. — Indemnification for consequential damages shall include not only those caused the injured party, but also those suffered by his family or by a third person by reason of the crime.

  • Indemnity refers to crimes against persons; reparation to crimes against property
  • Indemnity for medical services still unpaid may be recovered
  • Contributory negligence on the part of the offended party reduces the civil liability of the offender
  • The civil liability may be increased only if it will not required an aggravation of the decision in the criminal case on w/c it is based
  • The amount of damages for death shall be at least 50,000, even though there may have been mitigating circumstances.
  • In addition:
  1. payment for the loss of the earning capacity of the deceased
  2. if the deceased was obliged to give support, the recipient who is not an heir, may demand support from the defendant
  3. the spouse, illegitimate and illegitimate descendants and ascendants of the deceased may demand for moral damages.
  • Moral damages may be recovered in the ff:
  1. physical injuries
  2. seduction, abduction, rape
  3. adultery, concubinage
  4. illegal or arbitrary detention
  5. illegal search
  6. libel, slander, defamation
  7. malicious prosecution
  • Exemplary damages may be imposed when the crime was committed with one or more aggravating circumstances; cannot be recovered as a matter of right, the court will decide whether they should be adjudicated.


Art. 108.               Obligation to make restoration, reparation for damages, or indemnification for consequential damages and actions to demand the same — Upon whom it devolves. — The obligation to make restoration or reparation for damages and indemnification for consequential damages devolves upon the heirs of the person liable.

The action to demand restoration, reparation, and indemnification likewise descends to the heirs of the person injured.

  • The heirs of the person liable has no obligation if restoration is not possible and the deceased left no property
  • Civil liability is possible only when the offender dies after final judgement.
  • If the death of the offender took place before any final judgement of conviction was rendered against him, the action for restitution must necessarily be dismissed.


Art. 109.               Share of each person civilly liable. — If there are two or more persons civilly liable for a felony, the courts shall determine the amount for which each must respond.

In case of insolvency of the accomplices, the principal shall be subsidiarily liable for their share of the indemnity and in case of the insolvency of the principal, the accomplices shall be subsidiarily liable, jointly and severally liable, for the indemnity due from said principal

Art. 110.               Several and subsidiary liability of principals, accomplices and accessories of a felony — Preference in payment. — Notwithstanding the provisions of the next preceding article, the principals, accomplices, and accessories, each within their respective class, shall be liable severally (in solidum) among themselves for their quotas, and subsidiaries for those of the other persons liable.

The subsidiary liability shall be enforced, first against the property of the principals; next, against that of the accomplices, and, lastly, against that of the accessories.

Whenever the liability in solidum or the subsidiary liability has been enforced, the person by whom payment has been made shall have a right of action against the others for the amount of their respective shares.

  • Example: an indemnity of 100,000 has been sentenced, 50,000 will go to the principal and 20,000 to the accomplice
  • Subsidiary liability will be enforced on:
  1. first, against the property of the principal
  2. second, against that of the accomplice
  3. third, against that of the accessories


Art. 111.               Obligation to make restitution in certain cases. — Any person who has participated gratuitously in the proceeds of a felony shall be bound to make restitution in an amount equivalent to the extent of such participation.


  1. This refers to a person who has participated gratuitously in the commission of a felony and he is bound to make restitution in an amount equivalent to the extent of such participation
  2. The third person must be innocent of the commission of the crime otherwise he would be liable as an accessory and this article will apply


Art. 112.               Extinction of civil liability. — Civil liability established in Articles 100, 101, 102, and 103 of this Code shall be extinguished in the same manner as obligations, in accordance with the provisions of the Civil Law.

  • Civil liability is extinguished by:
  1. payment or performance
  2. loss of the thing due
  3. condonation or remission of the debt
  4. confusion or merger of the rights of creditor and debtor
  5. compensation
  6. novation
  • Other causes of extinguishment of obligations such as annulment, rescission, fulfillment of a resolutory condition and prescription are governed elsewhere in this code
  • Civil liability may arise from
  1. Crime – RPC
  2. Breach of contract – CC
  3. Tortious act – CC
  • The civil liability from any of these is extinguished by the same causes enumerated above
  • The accused shall still be liable for the payment of the thing stolen even if it is lost or destroyed


Art. 113.               Obligation to satisfy civil liability. — Except in case of extinction of his civil liability as provided in the next preceding article the offender shall continue to be obliged to satisfy the civil liability resulting from the crime committed by him, notwithstanding the fact that he has served his sentence consisting of deprivation of liberty or other rights, or has not been required to serve the same by reason of amnesty, pardon, commutation of sentence or any other reason.


  • Unless extinguished, civil liability subsists even if the offender has served sentence consisting of deprivation of liberty or other rights or has served the same, due to amnesty, pardon, commutation of the sentence or any other reason.
  • Under the law as amended, even if the subsidiary imprisonment is served for non-payment of fines, this pecuniary liability of the defendant is not extinguished.
  • while amnesty wipes out all traces and vestiges of the crime, it does not extinguish the civil liability of the offender. A pardon shall in no case exempt the culprit from the payment of the civil indemnity imposed upon him by the sentence
  • probation affects only the criminal aspect of the crime.



Criminal Law Book 1 Reviewer

Ateneo Central Bar Operations 2001


About Magz

First of all, I am not a lawyer. I'm a graduate of AB Political Science and went to the College of Law but stopped going to law school for some reasons. I'm a passionate teacher who has been teaching English to speakers of other languages and a person who likes writing and blogging. I lost some important files and software when my computer broke down so the reason I created this website is to preserve the notes, reviewers and digests I collected when I was at the law school and at the same time, I want to help out law students who do not have enough time to go and read books in the library.

Posted on January 24, 2012, in Criminal Law and tagged . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: